Flower Farming Business Plan
Hello friends, today we are here with a new topic of “flower farming business plan in India or floriculture business plan in India”. Flower farming has become one of the more popular businesses nowadays in India. If you enjoy flower gardening and want to turn flower gardening hobbies into extra income, think about growing flower plants for the market. Several flowers can add beauty to your property while raising income for the family. Flower plants are the most profitable plants and producing one of the highest returns in India. Initially, you can get started with little just enough for flower seeds and supplies, and most new flower growers make money in the first year of planting. The production of flower plants is one of the fastest-growing crops in today’s agricultural trends.
Floriculture is also called flower farming. Floriculture crops like Gerberas, Carnation, etc. are grown in greenhouses. The open field flower crops are Chrysanthemum, Roses, Gaillardia, Lily Marigold, Aster, and Tuberose, etc.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Flower Farming Business Plan or Floriculture Business Plan in India
Flower Cultivated Areas in India
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan, Haryana is the major flower cultivated states in India. Flower cultivation has emerged as a profitable agri-business in recent years and worldwide as improved standards of living. Other flower-producing states like Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Mizoram, Orissa, Gujarat, Haryana, Assam, and Chhattisgarh. In simpler terms, Flower farming can be defined as the art and knowledge of growing flowers to perfection. The persons associated with this flower farming field are known as floriculturists.
Scope of Flower Cultivation in India
The scope of floriculture in India is as follows;
- The opportunities for flower cultivation are increasing due to several uses of flowers in an aesthetic sense, urbanization, and substantially increased purchasing power of people.
- The demand for flowering plants and their products, such as bouquets, garlands, and value-added products like dry flowers and potpourris is increasing by the day. They are required in several functions and celebrations.
- The diverse agro-climatic conditions in the country enable the growth of all types of flowers in one season or the other seasons.
- Landscaping has become an integral component of urban horticulture, which apart from adding aesthetic value to a place, protects the environment, reduces air and also noise pollution, and promotes ecotourism.
- In light of climate change, the scope of turf or lawn grasses, vertical gardening, and roof gardening, etc., is rising.
- Increasing industrialization and depleting agricultural land have opened avenues for potted plant production and marketing.
Requirements for Successful Flower Farming Business
The successful commercial flower farming process mostly depends on the varieties of flowers. In the latest technology, there are many planting methods are available but plant cultivation in the greenhouse method is very famous and convenient for flower plants. Flower plants can be growing in pots, on the terrace, indoors, open fields, greenhouse, and polyhouse.
Floriculture is referred to as growing and marketing flower plants and these pants are largely produced in plant-growing structures in temperate climates. It is largely thought of as a greenhouse industry, though several flowers are cultivated outdoors in nurseries or crop fields.
Cut flowers are a perfect cash crop because the plants are very easy to grow, produce quickly, and can supply a good income throughout the growing season. Also, startup costs are low, as most gardeners already have the basic gardening tools required, and only have to buy seeds to get started. The cut flower farming business is known to be a profitable business in India; it has evolved from the backyard garden to a global industry in all countries where it’s carried out.
Several people attracted to the floriculture business because of their interest in growing flowers. Though, actual plant production accounts for only a portion of what is required for a successful business;
- Grow a quality product
- Sell the crop
- Handle / Store / Transport the crop
- Production efficiency
- Business management
- Make a profit
Flower cultivation should be equally adept at marketing their crops and managing the business to make a profit. Some considerations must be made before starting a flower farming business.
Flower Seed and Planting Material
There is a high demand for quality flower seeds particularly annual ornamentals and ornamental planting material. Flower seeds of annuals are formed in huge quantities for sale. A large number of bulbous flower plants like Gladiolus, Tuberose, Amaryllis, Dahlia, Lilies, Freesia, Tulip, and Calla Lily, etc., are marketed.
When sowing flower seeds, you need to have a good potting mix and also need a warm area to germinate the seeds. Sow the flower seeds by sprinkling them over the damp potting mix and then very lightly with more mix. It takes most perennial seeds 3 to 5 weeks to germinate so you do need to be patient. Frequently some of the flower seeds from the same variety will germinate faster than others so you will have a few seeds up and growing while others are still dormant. Then, place the seedlings into good light and let them grow. Do not expect all the seeds to germinate.
For perennial plants, the germination rate can be as low as 50% in some plant varieties, compared to almost 95% of annual seed that will germinate. Also, you can increase the germination rate by chilling the seeds before you sow them and soaking them. The young perennial will grow steadily the 1st year but they do not always flower that first year. Growing perennials from seed are different from growing annuals, but it is just as worthwhile.
Flower Farming Business Ideas in India
Ageratum plant is a fast-growing annual plant. Caring for the ageratum plant includes regular watering until the plant is established. With successive plantings, it can produce continuous blooms from early summer to frost. Make sure soil drains well and don’t let the soil dry out either. Ageratum plants quickly wilt if conditions are too dry.
Growing alstroemeria plant is easy and does not need much time or effort. You can find at least 50 species of alstroemeria around the globe. Alstroemeria flowers have no fragrance and it has a vase life of about two weeks. The alstroemeria plant needs full sun and well-drained soil for farming.
Carnation is popular as “The Flowers of God”. The flower comes in numerous colors. You can grow carnation from cuttings. Also, the flowers need some hours of full sun each day. Keep the soil in moist condition. However, avoid overwatering the plant. The plants growing in an area that gets 4 to 6 hours of sunlight per day.
Gerberas come in different colors. Also, it is one of the most popular cut flowers globally and the flower has a long vase life. The most inexpensive method to produce gerberas is from seed. However, you should obtain the seed from reputed seed suppliers. Gerbera plants are perennials and do best in full sun, in well-drained soil. If soil is poorly drained, grow the plants in a raised garden bed.
The scientific name of jasmine is Jasminum and the flower belongs to the Oleaceae family. You can find several fresh flower usages like making garlands, bouquets, decorating hair of women, and religious offerings, etc. Well-drained, rich loamy soil with a pH level from 6.5-7.5 is ideal for their cultivation. It prefers a mild and tropical climate. Jasmine is commercially cultivated in India under open field conditions.
The Lavender plant needs full sun to do well, but not too much summer heat. Also, select the right lavender variety that suits your locality. The growing lavender plant is easy and rewarding. To grow a lavender plant you could need well-drained soil.
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Generally, there are two growth types of orchids. The first is known as Monopodial Orchids and the second known as Sympodial Orchids. Generally, the orchid plant needs good sunlight. You will require providing sun lights 12 to 14 hours each day.
Rose is a perennial shrub or vine of the Rosa genus and belongs to the Rosaceae family. Generally, the rose plant grows well in the plains under the ideal condition of fertile loamy soils with salt-free irrigation water. A moderately cool climate with bright sunshine and free ventilation is necessary for rose cultivation in India. The ideal soil for rose plants should be medium loam having sufficient organic matter, proper drainage, and a pH level of 6.0 to 7.0. You can harvest the Rose flowers at the tight bud stage when the color is fully developed.
Sunflowers are the early-blooming varieties at less than 60 days to harvest and are popular market sellers. Sunflower plants grow well in the soil with lots of water holding capacity, drainage, and fertilizer.
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The tulip plant prefers full sun but will settle for less. The Tulip flowers good revenue return. Also, the flowers have good export potential.
The peony is a flowering plant in the Paeonia genus, the only genus in the family Paeoniaceae. There are hundreds of varieties of peony perennial plants. Good air circulation around the plant is important. Peonies love to be in full sun and will flower at their best in that position, but they will tolerate light shade.
Nothing fills out a bouquet quite like zinnia flowers, with their brilliant colors, shapes, and sizes. The giant varieties are bestsellers at the market. Zinnia plants grow and flower best in full sun.
Violets have heart-shaped leaves and asymmetrical flowers. For violet cultivation, you will need to select a site with full sun to light shade. Provide water only moderately. Although they love cool conditions, it doesn’t need huge amounts of water.
Tips for Starting Flower Farming Business in India
Here some tips to follow to start a flower farming business;
Floriculture is a great opportunity for people who love gardening and also earn good money from the flower farming business. To understand the flower farming business you want to understand the term floriculture and what it consists of for example pot plants, cut foliage, seeds bulbs, tubers, rooted cuttings and dried flowers, cut flowers, or leaves.
Choose Planting Site Carefully
Plant the right plant in the right place is important for the flower farming business. Provide full sun for flower plants that need it and shade for those that need shade. Start in a small space and then get bigger as you get more comfortable. If you start a garden too big, you might get discouraged.An area with too much direct sun or too much shade will be difficult for some flower plants to grow in. Find out what type of light is best for the flower plants.
You may end up wanting to select an area with more or less sun than your original plot has. If you plan on planting several different types of flowers, choose ones with similar light or shade requirements so that they grow equally well in the same location.
Prepare the Soil
Flower cultivation starts with healthy soil. Generally, most flowering plants do best in soil that’s loose and well-drained with a lot of organic material in it. You don’t want to dig a large area to plant flowers, but you must dig enough soil that you can add some compost to improve the soil structure and add nutrients. Also, add organic matter to allow air, water, worms, and roots to roam freely.
If your flower plants are struggling, poor soil is usually the culprit. Regardless of whether you are planting your flower plants in a pot or a garden, good soil is a must. Find out what potting medium is the best for the flower plants you are growing and then try to find the best location or potting mix for your flowers.
Fertilize Plants Sparingly
A few perennial plants are “heavy feeders” and they require more nutrients than other perennial plants to bloom and grow well. Lilies, tall phlox, and delphiniums are examples of perennial flower plants that need a little more fertilizer than most.
However, most perennial plants don’t need much fertilizer and can perform poorly if over-fertilized. Generally, a single spring application of a balanced fertilizer like 5-5-5 or 10-10-10 works for the heavy feeders; just scratch a handful into the soil around the base of the plant. An inch or two of aged manure or finished compost applied in the fall or spring season before mulch is replaced will keep other plants happy and will continue to improve the soil.
Water your Flowers Regularly
Although individual plant needs vary based on humidity and the type of plant, it is common to add several cups of water to each plant by using a watering close to the soil. Also, you can have a sprinkler or drip system installed to do the work for you on an automated basis.
Plan your business
Before starting any business you need planning. To keep your flower fresh and increase its life you need a freezer and what other aspects you need to keep in mind. Also, you should analyze the manpower requirement that you might need to design the floral arrangement and for delivery. Either you want to go for a franchise or source to get your business like florists or flower companies. Get proper mentoring before starting the flower farming business as this business requires a lot of knowledge.
Your Flower Farm Should Be Organic
Your products must be natural, which means you use natural pesticides instead of chemicals to get rid of pests. These chemicals could damage your flowers instead of helping them. It is easy to use a natural pesticide solution instead of opting to buy the chemical ones. Use natural predators like praying mantises and ladybugs. Then, these insects prey on the natural pests of plants, so with them on your farm, you have natural and effective pest control.
Choose the Flowers You Want To Cultivate
Your main aim is to earn a profit in the flower farming business. Therefore, select the flowers that are in great demand in the market. You want to segregate them accordingly to help your customers make an informed decision as well as to provide them value for money.
High Demand Flowers in India
The most commercially used flowers in India are Rose, Gerbera, Tulip, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Orchid, Lilium, Gladiolus, Jasmine, Anthurium, and Hydrangea, etc.
Cultivation Methods to Profit from Flower Cultivation
Open Farming is good for flower farming but there are a few requirements to open field farming. High maintenance, labor, and the possibility of pests and other problems related to weather conditions. A controlled environment can be a great way to increase profits in flower cultivation. The degree of control will determine the investment for your farming project. There are several options to creating a controlled environment. To begin with, you could have a simple greenhouse, but even creating a greenhouse with a drip irrigation system is more helpful. This will need that you choose the right plant, Get the right customer, market the product, and sell the produce at a high price when ready.
Greenhouse for Flower Cultivation in India
Greenhouse for Rose Plantation and most of the flower cultivation, especially for Cut flowers is essential. While Rose plants cultivated in the open field have the capacity of 3.75 lakh stems to 5 Lakh stems per year, cultivation in the greenhouse system can yield 4.75 Lakh to 8 Lakh per acre every year. You could say it’s nearly double in quantity and whets even better is the fact that the roses cultivated in greenhouses were of better quality and perfect for export. With better quality also came better prices and resulted in more profit. Common Flowers grown in Greenhouses are Gerbera, Orchid, Anthurium, Lily, Rose, and Carnation.
Market Demand and Supply of Flowers in India
The demand for flowers is seasonal and it has mainly two components. They are a steady component and a seasonal component. The factors which influence the demand are different for traditional and modern flower plants.
Traditional Flowers – The steady demand for traditional flowers comes from the use of flowers for religious purposes, and decoration purposes. This demand is mainly strong in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and West Bengal. The bulk of seasonal demand flowers come from festivals and marriages. The demand is normally for specific flowers.
Modern Flowers – The bulk of the demand for modern flowers comes from institutions like hotels, guest houses, and marriage gardens. The demand is concentrated in urban areas. The price of these flowers also depends on their demand and changes accordingly.
Steps to Follow for Flower Farming Business Plan
Step 1) Making a business plan is important in starting a flower farming business. Decide the mission statement and business objective. According to the availability of flowers in your location or area, you will need to select what types of flower products you will be creating.
Step 2) Then, specify your target niche, marketing, and advertising strategy. Also, you will want to calculate the startup budget including store set up, employee, and raw materials. Calculate an expected return on investment. A proper flower farming business plan will help you to take the right steps at the right time and to get finance.
Step 3) The main step is to determine if you have the right personality to own and operate your own business. Visit with people who already own their flower businesses. Analyze your strengths and weaknesses. You need to be able to do everything well to succeed in your business.
Step 4) Obtain sufficient capital to start the flower business and operate until it makes a profit. Unless you are quite lucky, your flower farming business will not make money the first year and may not for several years. Generally, flower production operations do not require much initial capital but some major expenses including irrigation, greenhouses for production, and hoop houses.
Step 5) Determine if there is a sufficient market for the products or services your flower business will offer. Define the location you intend to reach. Direct retail will depend on people who can readily drive or walk to your business, which means that you must be in or close to a metropolitan area.
Step 6) Your potential customer base may be large enough but may not be able to support your flower business if there are too many competitors already in the market. Analyze your competition and remember lower prices will not work in the long run. That strategy only works for large companies who can produce or sell large amounts of products and also services and make money through economy of scale.
Step 7) The primary customers are those who you anticipate will buy most of the products or services. They are the ones that you will direct most of the marketing towards. Secondary customers are those who can purchase some of your products and services but not in large enough amounts to support the business. You should always consider secondary customers, especially in case your primary customers fail to support your flower business, but do not pay so much attention to secondary customers that you lose your primary customers. For example, a cut flower grower can target florists as their primary customers and have wholesalers or a grocery store as their secondary customers.
Most Common Problems in Growing Flower Plants
Common Pests and their control
Spider mites, mealy bugs, fungus gnats, whitefly, and aphids are the most common pests in flowering plants. Flower plants that are being moved from decks, patios, etc. to the home or office must be washed thoroughly with a spray of clear water.
Control – A period of isolation (10-14 days) can be useful for controlling these pests. Most of these pests in flowering plants can be controlled by washing off with a spray of water. Chemical sprays are not pleasant to use for indoor flower plants and are recommended for outdoor application.
Diseases and their control
Diseases are rare on flowering plants. Botrytis is the main disease in flowering plants and soft leaf spot or crown rot fungi which thrive in moist atmospheres. The best-preventing method for this disease is to remove affected parts. Also, some other preventing methods are given more space for air circulation or move infected plants to a drier place.