Biofloc Fish Feeding Chart
Hello friends, today we are here with a topic of Biofloc Fish Feeding Chat and Biofloc fish feed management. Fish is a rich source of protein, minerals, and other nutrients that are an integral part of the dietary habits of people living in different parts of India. BFT can be effective technology in replacing costly feed aquaculture systems with simultaneous environmental improvement with no additional cost. Besides the Biofloc system became more economic as it operated under a zero water exchange system thus reducing the cost of water exchange. Biofloc technology is an economical alternative technique for use in decreasing the commercial diets of fish in fish ponds. Though, consumption of macroaggregates can increase nitrogen retention from added feed by 7 to 13%.
In India, high productivity and sustainable fish farming is the need of the hour in the fisheries industry. Biofloc fish farming is one of the best available methods today which are helping fish farmers to attain a wide range of objectives like high output, low cost, sustainable growth, better income opportunities, less area, and less maintenance cost, etc. Biofloc fish farming is a viable option and proves to be beneficial when compared to conventional open pond fish farming.
A Step-by-Step Guide to Biofloc Fish Feeding Chart and Feed Management
What Is Biofloc Technology?
Biofloc technology used for removing waste from water and this is done to ensure that no diseases are transmitted. The technique uses a good set of bacteria and these are probiotics. These probiotics can kill harmful bacteria. Also, they can convert nitrogen from water into protein.
Biofloc technology is a cost-efficient technology and in this method, the waste material of fish materials such as Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonia may be born-again into a helpful product that is supermolecule feed. Biofloc technology is going to be a lot of products within the case of culture tanks exposed to the sun. Biofloc technology a preferable choice;
- Many experiments were conducted to evaluate whether the Biofloc system was good enough to be implemented. Several parameters were evolved and also several tests were conducted to measure the water quality and oxygen level. Biofloc technology was effective in maintaining the required oxygen level, mineral quality, alkaline nature, and pH level, etc.
- Fishes reached their required average size within 30 days by using Biofloc technology while it took 45 days for fishes to reach their average size without using the Biofloc system. Using Biofloc technology determines the production cost and clear water system. It was found that the production cost using Biofloc technology was 20 to 30% higher than that of the traditional freshwater method.
- But the total profit obtained by using Biofloc technology was 23% higher than the profit generated using the freshwater method. Therefore, the net profit generated was also higher than the freshwater method. So, it was proved that Biofloc not only increases production, reduces the time required but also increases the net profit.
Biofloc is the fusion of different substances and a large number of particles adhere to each other and form a flocculent. Bacteria, protozoa, algae, organic sludge, or uneaten fish feed can be present.
Why Choose Biofloc Technology?
Biofloc technology is a real “environmentally friendly system” with a “green” approach. Carbohydrate addition in extensive fish ponds improved nitrogen retention efficiency and had a positive effect on production. The Bioflocs nutritional content includes protein in ranges from 25 to 50%. Bioflocs are great suppliers of vitamins and minerals. Also, they have probiotic effects and are considered to be biosecure, reducing the impact on pathogenic bacteria, which are relatively low in systems with Biofloc technology.
The limitations of traditional aquaculture that led to the evolution of Biofloc include the below factors;
- Water/ land availability
- Feed cost (accounting for 60% of the total production cost)
If the stocking has to take place at a high density, then the wastewater must be treated on a higher basis. Therefore, Biofloc has been brought into existence and was given more importance only to treat the wastewater in aqua farming.
How Biofloc Is Useful In Fish Farming?
The principle of Biofloc technology is to recycle nutrients by maintaining a high C/N ratio in the water to stimulate heterotrophic bacterial development that mainly converts ammonia into microbial biomass. Then, the microorganisms have 2 main roles. The first role is to the maintenance of water quality, by the uptake of nitrogen compounds generating microbial protein. The second role is to increasing culture feasibility by reducing the feed conversion ratio and a decrease in feed costs. The downside of in-depth fish culture in ponds is to take care of the water quality.
Ammonia is the main agent that obstructs fish growth in Biofloc fish farming. The fishes on the tanks eat these proteins and as a result, the quantity of feed given to the fishes decreases. They’re already feeding the proteins from the flocs. So, the feeding price decreases by 20 to 30%.
Feeding and Growth Response of Culture Species in a Biofloc System
Biofloc is the retention of waste and its conversion to Biofloc as natural food. It promotes suspended growth in ponds and dead particulate organic matter and grazers of bacteria to recycle feed residues and raise feed efficiencies. This is based upon the basic principle of the activated suspension system and the C/N ratio maintenance. If carbon and nitrogen are well balanced in the water, the nitrogenous waste generated by the cultivated organisms mainly ammonia will be consumed into bacterial biomass and an increase in the C/N ratio stimulates heterotrophic bacterial production. The success of this Biofloc technology mainly depends on the selection of species, because the cultured animals should have the ability to harvest the bacterial floccules developed in the system, and can digest and utilize the microbial protein.
Biofloc technology requires a filter-feeding species to harvest the Biofloc directly from the water in which it is cultured, and is the major application of BFT in the aquaculture industry today. There are different ways in which the gain experienced in BFT systems is expressed. Tilapia in the Biofloc system can derive 20 to 30% of their growth from feeding on this available microbial protein. The Biofloc consumed by tilapia makes up around 50 % of the usual amount of feed that is fed to the fish.
Microalgae present in the culture system significantly improved weight gain and FCR, thus potentially reducing the feed cost associated with fish production. So the presence of Biofloc can increase growth and decrease FCR which means that shrimp can benefit from the nutritional quality of Biofloc. Biofloc media were proved to be highly efficient in reducing the FCR value (42.95% and 44.96% respectively) as compared to conventional feeding. Biofloc can also improve the performance of supplementary feed both in terms of feed conversion ratio and feed conversion efficiency.
Farmers can raise fish in artificial tanks with high densities in an area of between 150 to 200 square meters connected with piped water supply by applying Biofloc technology. Some freshwater fish species are produced in Biofloc such as tilapia, pangasius, common carp, and others. The Biofloc can produce 2,000 kilograms of fish from four small tanks on an area of up to 150 square meters while the traditional pond farming system needs an area of 4,000 square meters to produce a similar output in 6 months. The Biofloc-based tanks can be installed on building terraces and the backyard to supply live or fresh fish to customers nearby.
The local government will provide a subsidy of 40% to fish farmers to build the system. This new technology will help boost fish production in the state and encourage local people to participate in farming activities in the state. The state government will work to provide technical support for Biofloc-based farmers.
Biofloc Fish Feed Management
In the traditional fish farming system, fish consumes very little amount of feed supplied to them in the water. The wasted feed degrades and then turns into toxic metabolites. Then, it pollutes the water and affects the surrounding environment with the stench it emanates from as well. The feed is an important part of fish farming. Every day a regular amount of feed is essential for the growth and development of the fish.
Wasted feed, as well as fish excreta, is converted into the feed which can be consumed by the fish in Biofloc fish farming. The combination of microorganism, fungi, and algae, etc., forms a Biofloc which absorbs inorganic waste and then enhances water quality. Thus, the problem of water pollution is solved in this manner. Also, the fish farmers can save money on feed and it is readily available as well.
Machines for Making Fish Feed
Fish feed extruder machine is generally used in making both floating fish feed and sinking feed pellets for aquaculture farms and feed plants. In this machine, use cheap local raw materials to produce high-quality fish feed.
Composition and nutritional value of Biofloc
Biofloc is composed of several microorganisms. Though, it is a protein-rich live feed formed as a result of the conversion of unused feed and excreta into a natural food in a culture system on exposure to sunlight. A good nutritional value is found in Biofloc. The dry weight protein ranges from 25 to 50%, fat ranges from 0.5 to 15%. It is a good source of several vitamins and minerals, particularly phosphorous. Also, it affects similar to probiotics. The nutritional quality is good, and only limited qualities are available.
Biofloc fish Feeding Chart
|Fish Body Weight (Gm)||Feed % (Total Body Weight)||Floating Feed Size (MM)||Protein (%)|
Best Fish Species for Biofloc Fish Farming In India
Major cultivable fish species in BFT;
For designing a Biofloc system the basic factor is the species to be cultured. Biofloc is most suitable for species that can tolerate high solids concentration in water. Some of the species that are suitable for Biofloc technology are;
- Air-breathing fish like Singhi, Magur, Pabda, Anabas/Koi, and Pangasius
- Non-air-breathing fishes such as Common Carp, Rohu, Tilapia, and Milkfish
- Shellfishes like Vannamei and Tiger Shrimp
With the growing demand for Inland fish farming, people are opting for a Biofloc system as an alternative to other traditional types of fish rearing. Some of the best species of fish that are ideal for the Biofloc system are;
Tilapia is ideally adapted to Biofloc systems. An important feature of the Biofloc tilapia production system is the very high biomass. Tilapia biomass can reach about 200 to 300 MT/ha in well-managed ponds. The high fish density generates wastes at high rates.
Tilapia fish is rich in taste, tolerant to a wide variety of water conditions. Tilapia is strongly resistant to disease and parasites. Tilapia is the most favorable choice for fish farmers. The Nile and Blue Tilapia fish are considered the best fish species. The little drawback is having is they can’t bear water temperature levels below 18.3°C.
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. It is a great taste, highly resistant to disease, fast growth. In the Indian States of Odisha, West Bengal, and Assam the catfish are locally known as “Magur”. Whereas Kerala is called “Thedu” Or “Etta” in Malayalam.
The BFT technology started at the beginning of this experiment utilized the new Biofloc water. Though, old versus new Biofloc waters, low- versus high-TSS old Biofloc waters, and old versus new low-TSS waters were the planned comparisons evaluated. Then, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated for each tank as the total quantity of feed fed (dry matter basis) divided by the net (wet) weight of fish harvested.
Biofloc production system water from a full season of catfish grows out that was used to keep market-size fish over the winter was used successfully in the second year of catfish food-fish production.
High acceptability to consumers due to its nutritive value and fast growth rate. They are tough, resistant to disease, and can adjust based on the water conditions, they can bear water temperature between 21°C to 32°C and best grow at 26°C to 30°C. Some of the major carps are “Catla”, “Rahu”; “Mrigal” are the best options. Some of the exotic major carps which are well adopted in India are Common carps, Silver carps, and Grass carps.
Bass is quality taste, white meat with high market value, and well suited for Biofloc aquaculture. The fishes can live, grow and mature in freshwater, can tolerate a wide range of salinity from 0 ppt to 35 ppt and above making them naturally capable of aquaculture. They can bear water temperature level between 18.3°C to 30°C and growth respond best at 26.6°C. Fingerling requires attentive care and large and small individuals should be kept separate. The fishes are sensitive to poor nutrition, rough handling, and bright lights. Asian bass is a popular choice.
Trout and Salman
They have great taste and grow quickly providing harvestable fish in one season. Fishes require good control over water parameters as compared to others, like water temperature should be maintained between 13°C to 16°C and oxygen level.
Optimizing Daily Feed Allotment
For best results raising 5 to 220-gram fish were achieved when feeding a 20.2% protein feed which provides a C/N ratio of about 15.5:1 based upon the use of bio-energetic feeding rate where FCR averaged 1:1. Meal intervals were spaced 3 hours 30 minutes apart and the day’s first meal size was the largest at 45% of the daily feed allotment (dFA) in 20 to 120-gram fish. Larger fish above 120 grams were fed 3 meals per day spaced 5 hours apart where 50% of dFA was fed at first feeding early morning. Though feeding trays indicated that all feed is consumed under the meal intervals, meal percentage of dFA and feeding rates applied within less than 5 minutes.
Generally, overfeeding can rapidly deplete dissolved oxygen levels and result in excessive nutrients. Conversely, underfeeding less than what is necessary for fish to express their full growth potential reduces the profitability of the operation and also can result in a regression backward to “green water” from “brown water,” affecting ammonium removal rates and compromising system stability. The main objective of every fish farmer is to achieve maximum growth under the lowest food cost commonly referred to as the feed conversion ratio (FCR). Under BFT this objective is no different.
You may also check this: Fish Farming Profit Per Acre In India.
Investment and Profit in Biofloc Fish Farming
Investment in Biofloc fish farming is provided with a good return. Initially, start with a single Biofloc fish tank. The area which is necessary to set up for a single tank is around 4.5 diameters. The cost for the setup of a single tank for Biofloc fish farming is around 45,000 rupees, which is a one-time cost.
Profit – In a single-tank, we can put about 600 fishes and then calculate the feed cost which will be approximately 12,000 rupees for 4 months. Consider other variables which will be around 8,000 rupees. We can still earn a profit of 20,000 rupees per tank in 4 months.
Benefits of Biofloc Culture System
- Eco-friendly culture system
- It reduces environmental impact
- Improves land and water use efficiency
- Limited or zero water exchange
- Higher productivity
- Higher bio-security
- It is an eco-friendly method of fish rearing.
- Reduces water pollution
- Cost-effective feed production
- It reduces the utilization of protein-rich feed and standard feed cost.
- Biofloc technology reduced environmental impact as it uses the water waste into useful protein-rich feed for the aquatic life
- Biofloc technology improves the land and water use efficiency as it increases the density of fishes in the water body thus accommodating more fishes in the limited water space. Then, there will be less space required to accommodate more fishes the use of land will reduce thus further reducing the cost of production.
- Biofloc technology increases the productivity of fishery products as it ensures a higher survival rate and improves growth performance
- It also ensures higher biosecurity
- Biofloc technology helps in the reduction of water pollution. Also, it reduces the risk of rising pathogens and their spread
Disadvantages of Biofloc Technology
- Increased energy requirement for mixing and aeration
- Start-up period required
- Alkalinity supplementation required
- Increased pollution potential from nitrate accumulation
- Inconsistent and seasonal performance for sunlight-exposed systems
Commonly Asked Questions about Biofloc Fish Feeding
Is Biofloc fish farming profitable?
Biofloc technique is a profitable method of fish farming. It is a low-cost method in which toxic materials for the fish such as Ammonia, Nitrate, and Nitrite can be converted into the feed. The principle of this method is to recycle nutrients.
How Biofloc helps in cost-saving and can double your income?
Biofloc farming is the profitable way of fish farming and cuts all the major costs so that the savings can be really big. Some factors like high costs of feeding, huge operational costs, discharge of waste sludge will not be problems in Biofloc technology.
When fishes are fed with high protein diets, about 70% of it is discharged as waste in surrounding culture water in the form of nitrogen. This waste can be recycled into feed again by reducing the expense of high protein feeds by using Biofloc technology. Also, it reduces the spread of pathogens while also improving fish health.
Which fish is best for Biofloc fish farming?
The best fish species for Biofloc fish farming in India are Tilapia, Catfish, Carp, and Bass.
What is FCR Biofloc?
The Feed Conversion Ratio is the amount of feed consumed by fish (g) to increase 1 g of fish weight, calculated to measure fish growth rate and consumed feed.
Does Biofloc need sunlight?
Biofloc requires a little amount of sunlight, a carbohydrate source, and plenty of aeration are needed. Biofloc culture systems bank on photosynthesis to convert uneaten feeds, faeces, and excess nutrients into the food.
What is TDS Biofloc?
The Best TDS (total dissolved solids) for Biofloc fish farming is about 1000 to 1500.
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