Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Hello friends, we are here with the topic of growing peas in Greenhouse. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a commonly grown leguminous vegetable in the world and it belongs to the Fabaceae family. Peas can be grown also in the mild climate of the tropics. Pea is also called garden Pea. Pea is a cool-season crop grown throughout the world. Green Pea pods are used for vegetable purposes and dried Peas are used as a pulse. In this article we also discuss the below topics about growing Peas in the greenhouse;
- Can Peas be grown in a greenhouse
- Peas are grown in an unheated greenhouse
- Do green Peas need a trellis
- What is the best method to plant Peas
- Do Peas grow well in containers
- Do Peas need full sun to grow
- Temperature for growing Peas in the greenhouse
- Conditions for growing peas in greenhouse
Now, let us get into the detailes of growing peas in Greenhouse.
A Step by Step Guide to Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Growing Peas in a greenhouse will give fresh Peas all year round. Greenhouse vegetable plants growing faster and stronger compared to grown in a traditional garden. When it’s below freezing outside, passive solar collectors and small heaters can leave the interior of a greenhouse cool but perfectly loveable for most spring vegetable crops. In the heat of the summer, fans and other cooling units can protect some plants from the scorching heat of a southern climate.
Basic Strategies for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Proper planning plays a very important role in the greenhouse system. You can sustain a very fruitful harvest at any time of the year with the help of a greenhouse. Check the space, the soil, the temperature, and water sources for greenhouse setup. If you sow Pea seeds direct into the ground, plant them 1 inch deep and relatively closely at about 1 inch apart, to make up for a higher loss rate.
Greenhouses with moisture regulators keep the air humid for plant growth. The main challenge of supplying high-quality vegetable plants all year round in greenhouse can be met by adopting one of two basic strategies are;
- Growing crops in a high-tech greenhouse setup, avoiding strong dependence on the outdoor climate.
- Growing crops in two or more locations or places with complementary harvesting periods, enabling a continuous year-round supply to markets.
Peas Production in India
Pea plants are well suited to a greenhouse, as they are much more cold-tolerant than other vegetables. If you love Peas and have a greenhouse set-up, then this vegetable certainly deserves a place within it. The major field of Pea growing state in India is Uttar Pradesh. It alone produces about 49 % of Pea produced in India. Also, Uttar Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Maharashtra are the major Pea producing states in India. Besides vegetable purposes, also it is grown as a forage crop for cattle and cover crop to prevent soil erosion but mainly for matured seed for human consumption.
Location for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
The ideal location for a greenhouse has high winter light intensity, moderate winter temperature levels, low humidity, and easy access to markets. The easy availability of existing utilities will help reduce establishment costs and affect ongoing fuel costs. And, be sure to leave sufficient room for future expansion and parking. Highways have made transporting greenhouse-grown vegetable plants easier, and also locating greenhouses near large population areas is also very important.
Greenhouses using native soil or a potted production system for vegetable production must be constructed on level sites with deep, well-drained soils. Sandy loams are best for growing Peas. A source of good-quality water is also important for growing Peas.
Environmental Control with Greenhouses
The greenhouse system allows a gardener the unique opportunity to control the climate no matter what’s happening outside. Many gardeners keep the chill off their plants with an unheated greenhouse system or cold frames, but this is the least flexible of greenhouse structures. Year-round greenhouse growers will require more complicated systems fitted with heating and cooling systems, ventilation that requires darkness to flower. Larger greenhouses can be divided internally to make climate zones, allowing different growing conditions within the same structure.
Conditions for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Greenhouse methods delivering the perfect temperature for your fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, and flowers have never been easier. As plants “breathe” CO2 and exert oxygen, also they produce heat. This heat buildup can have the effect of actually helping the growth of warmth-loving crops like Peas and can act as a natural heating source to insulate your plants. Shade coverings, sun-resistant poly, and good ventilation can all help lower the greenhouse’s internal temperature to keep plants at the right temperature for success.
Humidity has a profound effect on the conditions within the greenhouse if left uncontrolled. Long left up to nature on outdoor fields and highly variable with rain or drought conditions, humidity now plays the main role in environmental controls within greenhouses. Some plants thrive in a slightly moist environment; the presence of too much moisture can encourage the growth of nasty moulds and even harbor diseases or pests. With a combination of proper ventilation and heat management, you can carefully control humidity in the greenhouse to make sure everything is right where it maximizing plant growth.
Generally, a greenhouse must get full sun, at least 6 hours per day, especially during the winter. Sunlight has long been well outside the control of growers operating in open fields under the bare sun, the ability to choose greenhouse covering to regulate sunlight levels. By utilizing tools like energy curtains, shade coverings, black-out curtains, and UV-filtering plastic coverings, growers can fine-tune their plants’ light diet with unparalleled levels of control.
Benefits of Growing Peas in Greenhouse
The main benefits of growing peas in greenhouse are;
- The advantage of the greenhouse is that you can use different methods to keep a stable temperature. In this way, you will be able to cause less stress for the crops. Also, you will promote strong growth earlier in the year.
- Control of microclimate – The main advantage of a greenhouse is to control and establish the optimal environment for cultivation. You can adjust the temperature, humidity, and lighting, etc.
- Protection against diseases, and pests. Another advantage of a greenhouse system is that it is difficult to enter as it is a closed space.
- To prevent the crops are under stress due to extreme temperature levels and harmful humidity’s improving production.
- Excellent ventilation – You can ventilate the greenhouse quickly, thanks to their side windows. Optimum sealing against rain and air.
- Increased production – This is the main advantage of a greenhouse, can intensify production due to weather conditions, can accelerate the growth of the plants, and allows a greater amount of crop on the surface.
- Ability to grow all year. You can get more than one crop cycle per year and also get different species of plants.
- Optimizes the use of other methods to facilitate the management of climate (heating, humidification, shade screens or saving energy, etc.)
Popular Varieties for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Of the many varieties, the two common varieties are snap and snow. Snap Peas have a crisp, rounded shell and these Peas harvested when the pod is full of mature Peas. Snow Pea varieties are grown for their tender, crunchy pod and are harvested when the Peas are just beginning to form. Both Pea varieties can be grown in a trailing or bush form and have those same growing requirements. The greenhouse system offers a stable growing environment for Pea plants and helps protect them from pests and insects. Some other varieties are;
PG 3 – It is a dwarf and early maturing Pea variety, ready to harvest in 135 days.
Punjab 88 – This is an early-season variety developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Pods are dark green and curved and ready to harvest in 100 days.
Matar Ageta 6 – Early season dwarf plant variety developed by PAU, Ludhiana. Seeds are smooth and of green color.
Field Pea 48 – It is an early maturing and semi-dwarf Pea variety. Ready to harvest in 135days and seeds are of light green color, bold, slightly wrinkled. It has good cooking quality.
AP 3 – It is an early maturing Pea variety. It is ready for first harvesting after 70 days of seed sowing if it is sown in the second week of October.
Matar Ageta-7 – It is an early Pea variety that is ready for harvesting in 65 to 70 days.
Punjab 89 – This variety is ready for first harvesting after 90 days of sowing. The seeds are sweet and the legumes give 55% seeds.
Mithi Fali – This variety is ready for first harvesting is done after 90 days of seed sowing. This Pea variety is rich in protein and sweetness.
How to Grow Early Peas in Unheated Greenhouse
- Peas are excellent cool-weather vegetable choices for unheated greenhouse growing. An unheated greenhouse in the winter season will not only allow you to grow hardy vegetables, but you can start tender annuals, propagate perennials, and overwinter cold-sensitive plants. Of course, it helps to know how to use an unheated greenhouse effectively and conditions for growing plants.
- The greenhouse will trap heat from the sun during the day, which allows the plants inside to stay warm at night. It must be situated so it is getting the most natural sunlight possible, out of the way of winds, and as close to the water source as possible.
- Sow early Pea varieties from March to April. For the earliest crop, cover or cloche the soil a few weeks before seed sowing. Also, early Pea varieties have sown pots in a cold frame or unheated greenhouse.
- Sow early-maturing Pea varieties like ‘Feltham First’ for growing on in the greenhouse.
- Seeds can be sown individually in 5 cm pots to minimize root disturbance when planted out. Then, the seeds will germinate and grow in strips of compost, which can be slipped into a drill of the same size at planting time.
- A popular method of starting an early crop (late February early March), is to fill a length of roof guttering by using compost. Sow into it and germinate in a greenhouse or cold frame.
- Early Peas grown in pots in the greenhouse will now be ready for harvesting in June.
Tips for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
- Prepare the soil in the containers and Peas to prefer loose, well-draining soils with a pH of 6 to 7.
- Carefully add a 1-inch thick layer of fertilizer to the soil and then mix thoroughly. Compost or dried manure works well.
- Select a Pea plant variety. Garden Peas is also known as “Shelling Peas”, are the most common Pea variety. Sugar Peas and Snap Peas are also popular varieties and are the varieties used in stir-fries.
- If growing Peas from seed, the seeds must be planted 1 to 2 inches apart, at depth of about 1 to 1 ½ inch. If transplanting from starter plants, remove from starter container and then place in a new container at a depth that covers the plant’s root system. Planting must take place in September.
- Water the Peas deeply, to the depth of about 1 inch per week. Water must be poured onto the soil and not the plant itself, once the Pea plant has sprouted.
- Harvest Pea pods at their Peak and garden Peas are ready as soon as the pods appear swollen. Sugar Peas are ready when the pods first plump up and snow Peas when they reach their full length, which is 5 to 7 days after flowering.
Process of Growing Peas in Greenhouse
Step 1) Fill a starter cell pack to the brim with a sterile Peat soil mix and then plant the Pea seed 1 inch deep. Plant in late September in soil that is room temperature level and dry.
Step 2) Water the Pea seed lightly with a spray bottle or fine mist until the soil is damp. Allow the soil to drain between watering, and keeping it moist at all times.
Step 3) Test the soil temperature level with a soil thermometer. Soil temperature level needs to be at least 4°C for Pea seeds to germinate. After the germination process, the daytime air temperature needs to be 23°C in the greenhouse. Run the greenhouse exhaust fan to cool air temperature levels during the day.
Step 4) Add a fluorescent artificial light source during the winter season by placing the artificial light no more than 2 feet above the plants. Of the many artificial lighting sources obtainable, fluorescent lights are most common they produce less heat than other types. This allows the soil and air temperature levels to remain consistent. Also, they have better color rendering properties, resulting in the plant using more of the light emitted.
Step 5) Fill a 5-gallon container with the same Peat soil mix you used for germinating the Pea seeds. Then, use a container with drainage holes. After that, transplant the Pea seedling into the 5-gallon container once it has reached about 5 inches tall. Then, create a hole in the soil just large enough for the root ball. Gently remove the seedling from the cell pack and then separate the roots before setting in the hole. Backfill around the root ball with the soil and water thoroughly.
Step 6) Apply a slow-release, low-nitrogen granular fertilizer like 5-20-20, directly onto the top of the soil after transplanting the Pea seedling into the 5-gallon container. Reapply the fertilizer approximately every 3 months, following the labelling instructions.
Step 7) Pinch off the tips of the Pea plant slightly above the leaf node once it has reached 8 inches. Then, this will encourage branching and prevent the plant from getting leggy.
Step 8) Place a 3-foot trellis directly behind the Pea plant and then insert it into the soil. Both vine and bush Pea varieties will benefit from the support.
Step 9) Harvest the mature Peapods every day by pinching from the plant where the Pea stem meets the branch. Then, this will ensure that the plant produces more Peas for an endless supply throughout the winter season. Snap Peas will have a shell that is full and firm to the touch at maturity, while you must harvest snow Peas when the shell is young and tender, just as the Peas are starting to form.
Do Pea Plants Need Support?
Peas come in two heights like bush Peas and climbing Peas. All varieties benefit from some kind of support. Bush Pea plants are only 2 to 3 feet tall; they will flop on the ground if you don’t give them something to climb on. Generally, climbing Pea plants can reach 6 to 8 feet tall and they need a sturdy trellis. Though, Peas climb with 1-inch tendrils that they wrap around anything less than about a quarter inch. String, twine, trellis netting, or wire mesh with a grid no less than 1-inch square, all work well. For the highest crop yield, plant Peas on both sides of the trellis.
Care for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
- When grown on well-prepared soil (adding lots of composted organic matter) the main care need of Pea plants is a regular supply of water especially when the pods are forming. Doesn’t waterlog the soil but keep it moist. Also, weeds need to be kept to a minimum to avoid competition for water and nutrients. A layer of well-rotted compost around the growing Pea plants will help them grow well.
- As far as nutrients are concerned don’t add nitrogen fertilizers and this will only encourage leafy growth at the expense of Pea production. Feed Pea plants once a month by using blood, fish, and bone this is done on all our soil not just Peas.
- Climbing Peas have their supports put in place when seeds are sown. Use twigs and sticks to do this. Peas are self-pollinating and do not need insects or wind as far as pollination is concerned.
How to Grow Snap Peas in a Greenhouse?
- The snap Pea is also known as the sugar snap Peas.
- Sow seeds about 1-2 inches deep and 2 inches apart.
- Water the Pea seeds carefully with a fine mist until the soil is moist.
- They will need a 3-feet tall trellis or plant spiral for climbing. Then, place it right at the back of the plants. It is attractive when you have an entire vine covered in these blossoms. Plant and hoe shallowly without damaging your Pea plants.
- Perfect soil – The soil must be dry enough to work without the dirt clinging to your garden accessories. To prevent the soil from becoming too heated in the midday summer sun then mulch throughout the Peas. It prevents serious dampness from rain build-up throughout the plant roots.
- Best temperature and lighting for sugar snap Peas – Grow sugar snap Peas in a greenhouse with a temperature level of 7°C for the seeds to germinate. You can have up to 23°C after seed germination. Peas have at least 6 hours of full daylight every day but too much sunlight can hurt them. Artificial lights may be needed during winter but place those no more than 2 feet above the plants.
Pests and Diseases Control for Growing Peas in Greenhouse
- The main pest in Pea plants is the Pea moth. The moth lays its eggs at flowering time, which then hatch into maggots that attack the developing Pea plants. To deter, cover with fleece or also spray just as the flowers are emerging. Protect plants from birds and mice by laying spiky gorse clippings or holly leaves over the row.
- Thrips and aphids can make deformities of the leaves and pods. Sprinkle them with a reliable insecticidal detergent.
- Silvery webs on the undersides of leaves can be the work of spider mites, which can damage your Peas. Then, it can be washed away with insecticidal soap or just plain water.
- Brownish or yellowish specks on leaf surfaces could point to downy mildew. Improve the airflow and drainage and keep the greenhouse free of trash.
In case if you miss this: Growing Vegetables Hydroponically.
When and How to Harvest Peas in Greenhouse
Generally, Peas are ready to harvest 60 to 70 days after planting. The green Pea pods should be harvested at the proper stage. Multiple picking Peas like 4 to 5 pickling can be done within the 6 to 10 days interval. Yield depends on the plant variety, soil fertility, and management of the field. After picking Peas, promptly cool Peas in a cold water bath then dry them. Eat fresh Peas after picking the best flavor.
That’s all folks about growing peas in greenhouse. Hope this will help you to get profits in peas farming in the Greenhouse.